A health and safety expert has told a jury the Royal Highland Show could not reasonably have foreseen the accident which caused the death of a three-year-old boy.
Ben Craggs died after a concrete bollard toppled onto him at the Ingliston showground in June 2008.
Roderick Evans told Edinburgh Sheriff Court the bollards were checked three days earlier.
The Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland denies charges under health and safety laws.
Ben, pictured right, was at the show on June 19, 2008, with his parents, Jonathan and Dawn Craggs, from Sedgefield, County Durham, when he fell and grabbed a rope connecting two of the bollards, one of which overturned, striking him on the head.
Mr Evans said: “While the ultimate health and safety responsibility remained with the society, in my opinion the bollards, used in conjunction with the rope, did not expose the public to a reasonably foreseeable risk of injury.”