13 surprising Scottish innovations - from toasters to raincoats

Did you have toast for breakfast or cycle to work this morning? If so, you have Scottish inventors to thank.

Friday, 30th November 2018, 11:29 am
Updated Friday, 30th November 2018, 12:20 pm
An image of the St Andrews flag

Most people know that Scottish inventors developed the steam engine, the television and the telephone, but in honour of St Andrew’s Day here are 13 other everyday items we’re betting you didn’t know came from Scotland.

Refrigerators first became widely used in the 1920s. But believe it or not, Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen is credited with inventing the basis for modern refrigeration over 150 years earlier in the mid-1700s.
The worlds first purpose-built portrait gallery was (and still is) located in Edinburgh. Designed by local architect Robert Rowand Anderson, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery was opened in 1889. Artist John Byrne pictured.

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Regarded as the father of modern hypnotism, James Braid was a surgeon born in Kinross who was the first to investigate and perform hypnotherapy (both on himself and others) in a scientific capacity in 1841.
Originally known as Johnstons Fluid Beef, this perfect liquid-meat accompaniment to a pie at any football match was invented by Scotsman John Lawson Johnston in 1870.
Edinburgh native James Clerk Maxwell was the brains behind the first coloured photograph in history, which he presented to the world in 1861. Even if it was created with red, blue and green filters on black and white film.
While it has been disputed, Dumfries blacksmith Kirkpatrick MacMillan is generally credited with developing the modern bicycle in the mid-1800s. He improved on an initial design by German inventor Karl Drais by adding pedals.
If youve ever forgotten your PIN at a supermarket then youve got one man (from Paisley) to blame. James Goodfellow patented Personal Identification Number technology in 1966 and was also involved in the invention of the ATM.
While it looked nothing like the pop-up toaster you have in your kitchen today, the first electric bread toaster was invented in 1893 by Edinburgh scientist Alan MacMasters. Undoubtedly the best thing before sliced bread.
The son of Arbroath-born James Chalmers wrote several articles and a book which claimed that his father was the inventor of the adhesive postage stamp. While Chalmers received no official credit, both ideas were in use by 1840.
Aberdonian financial journalist Bertie Charles Forbes founded finance and marketing publications Forbes Magazine in 1917 with business partner Walter Drey. The magazine was originally called Forbes: Devoted to Doers and Doings.
Along with the bulk of the world Scotland now uses the Gregorian Calendar but evidence suggests that Scots once looked to the moon for guidance. The oldest known lunar calendar was discovered in Scotland and dates back to 8000 BC.
Glaswegian chemist Charles MacIntosh developed and patented the waterproof rubberised fabric that raincoats are made of in 1823. A vital accessory in rainy Scotland, the Mackintosh raincoat was named after him.
Ayrshire-born Henry Faulds first proposed the potential use of fingerprints in forensic work as far back as 1880. Whilst carrying out missionary work in Japan, he used fingerprint evidence to exonerate a wrongly accused colleague.