Documentary film-maker Theroux will be interviewed on stage by Dawn O'Porter at the three-day event, discussing his career so far, how he chooses his subjects and who he thinks is the "new Louis Theroux".
He will also reveal a selection of his current favourite clips and discuss the range of people he has met along the way, from his Weird Weekends series, following black nationalists, white supremacists and porn stars, to When Louis Met, and his experience and subsequent revelations regarding Jimmy Savile.
US broadcaster and former politician Springer will deliver the Alternative MacTaggart lecture.
He will also take part in a Q&A in which he will discuss his career hosting The Jerry Springer Show, as well as his views on the relationship between politics and the media.
The festival offers a series of keynote speeches, debates and masterclasses.
Channel 4 news chief Dorothy Byrne will give the prestigious MacTaggart Lecture, with a focus on "male behaviour".
The MacTaggart Lecture has formed the centrepiece of the Edinburgh TV Festival since 1976 and it has been given by TV luminaries including Rupert Murdoch, Armando Iannucci and Jon Snow.
Byrne will be the sixth woman to make the annual address, in honour of producer, writer and director James MacTaggart.
The festival also incorporates the Edinburgh TV Awards, with prizes given out across a range of categories.
Hugh Laurie will be given the Outstanding Achievement Award at the ceremony, hosted by stand-up comedian Mo Gilligan.
The Edinburgh TV Festival runs from August 21 to 23.