The youngster allegedly had his phone stolen in Craigmillar Road, yesterday, at around 9.15pm, after being attacked.
The man is scheduled to appear at Edinburgh Sheriff Court tomorrow.
Officers are still keen to trace another male who was with the man during the alleged assault and have appealed to him to come forward.
A police spokesman said: “Police responded and a man was quickly arrested in connection with this incident.
“We believe the male who was in his company would have witnessed the alleged crime taking place and we would like him to get in touch and assist with our enquiries.”