What is a freeport? Where will the green freeports in Scotland be and what is the criticism?
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The Scottish Government insists the green freeport plans in Scotland will have decarbonisation and fair work at the heart of their approach.
Yet what are freeports and why are there disagreements between Scottish Greens and SNP around them?
Find out more here.
What is a freeport?
A free port is a free economic zone (FEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries.
The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity with taxation rules and duties determined by each country.
Following Brexit, the UK Government proposed the creation of ten free ports, with eight in England already confirmed.
It comes as the European Union was clamping down on 82 free zones after finding their special status had aided the financing of terrorism, money laundering and organised crime.
What will the freeports in Scotland be like?
After months of disagreement over the set up around freeports in Scotland with the UK Government, the Scottish Government has now accepted the plans for freeports on a basis of changes.
The Scottish Government had resisted the idea of freeports, which are intended to revitalise deprived areas yet have been accused of encouraging tax avoidance and lower regulation.
Scottish ministers instead proposed the idea of green ports, based around low-emission industries and fair work practices.
The deal with Scotland appears to follow this model, but with the name of “green freeports”.
The plan proposed two green freeports, which can be rail or air hubs as well as seaports and they can apply alongside other local businesses, as well as the council and other public bodies.
Both the Scottish and UK governments will assess the bids and will have an equal say on the choice.
Where will the freeports be?
Locations have not yet been confirmed for Scotland, but a bidding process for the two locations will run from this spring until summer.
However, in July last year, the Scottish Government released a list of areas being considered for its own green port plans.
This list includes Dundee; a series of areas around the Firth of Forth; a similar collection of sites around Glasgow; Cairnryan, a port near Stranraer; Shetland; Orkney; Aberdeen and Peterhead; Rosyth and Montrose.
Where will Scotland’s free ports be?
The Cromarty Firth and the Forth are set to be named as the locations of two green freeports.
Where are the free ports in the UK?
A site in Teesside became the first to enter operation in November 2021.
A freeport near Felixstowe and Harwich, and another near Hull, have also now been granted most of the tax breaks available to companies.
Another zone, near East Midlands Airport - England's only freeport near an airport - is aiming to be up and running by March 2022.
What is the SNP position on freeports?
Following previous disagreements surrounding the potential fraudulent activity freeports can be home to, the SNP have only recently agreed to the freeports based on changes to the agreement with the UK Government.
Outlining these changes, finance secretary Kate Forbes told BBC’s Good Morning Scotland: “Those are firstly that we will have equal say on the decision, so we are proceeding on the basis of a partnership of equals [with the UK Government].
"Secondly, we will get full, fair funding. The funding for the green freeports has essentially doubled from what it was a few months ago.
"Thirdly, there are decarbonisation plans at the very heart of the green freeport approach.
"And lastly, and most importantly for us, fair work will be embedded at the heart of that.
"There will be a fair process.”
Ms Forbes added: "If a bidder doesn’t adhere to fair work practices, then they won’t win.”
The finance secretary also said the Scottish Government would not support an economic initiative like this unless it “shifts the dial on net zero”.
What have the Scottish Greens said about freeports?
In what is probably one of the biggest disagreements since their co0operation agreement with the SNP, the Scottish Greens have distanced themselves from the implementation of the green freeports.
The Scottish Greens disagree with the freeports deal and have stated the venture gives tax breaks and public money to multinational companies.
Ross Greer of the Scottish Greens told BBC’s Good Morning Scotland the ports are a “corporate giveaway” and are a means of “greenwashing”.
Green freeports are excluded from the co-operation agreement with the Greens and the SNP.