John Swinney said he has booked a PCR test and will be self-isolating in line with the current Government rules.
In a tweet on Monday Mr Swinney said: “I have been advised tonight that I am a close contact of an individual who has tested positive for Covid.”
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He added: “Thanks to all the contact tracers for their diligent work.”
In August, self-isolation rules in Scotland changed allowing people who have had two doses of the coronavirus vaccine to leave isolation early if they are identified as a close contact but go on to show a negative result.
On Tuesday, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon will be outlining her policy plans in the Scottish Parliament for next year – an event Mr Swinney will be unable to attend in person due to his recent Covid alert.