The incident happened in Ayr on March 10 before the Ayr United game when it is alleged a small number of fans were involved in violence and disorder.
Police went to properties in Edinburgh, Musselburgh and Newtongrange near Dalkeith, where they made the arrests around 7am today.
The men, aged 22, 29, 37, and 40 are currently detained in police custody.
The arrests came following a joint operation between officers from the Football Co-ordination Unit for Scotland (FoCUS), Strathclyde Police and Lothian and Borders Police.
Superintendent David Brand, of FoCUS, said: “This operation demonstrates the close working partnership between the national unit and commitment by all Scottish forces to eradicate violence and disorder at football matches.
“Football is our national game and while the vast majority of supporters are law-abiding and passionate about their team, it is recognised that a minority will occasionally behave in a violent or offensive manner which can tarnish the reputation of Scotland and Scottish football.
“It must be clear that violence and disorder cannot be tolerated and when people think that because they’re not arrested on the day that they have got away with it - let me assure them that is not the case. If you are involved in this type of behaviour, you will be caught and brought to justice.”
Superintendent Donnie MacKinnon, of Lothian and Borders Police, said: “The vast majority of football fans attend matches to support their teams and savour the atmosphere of match day.
“However, a small minority choose to spoil the occasion by acting violently or chanting offensive songs.
“The purpose of today’s operation is to bring those responsible to justice and send a clear message that crime will not be tolerated before, during or after a football match.”