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The pair of Guinea pigs were found by a member of the public at Inzievar Woods, near Oakley in Fife on Thursday.
The person had noticed the box lying near the road the previous morning.
When they went to move the box the following day and looked inside they were shocked to find the two animals.
However, despite being left in the cold, both guinea pigs were found to be in reasonable health, but the animals could easily have been at risk.
Scottish SPCA inspector, Robyn Gray said: “The Guinea pigs are both young females. One is black with some tan patches and the other is brown and white.
“Based on the information we have from the finder, who remembers seeing the box on the morning of Wednesday 9 March, they could have been there for up to 24 hours.
“It’s a very unusual case as both animals appear to be in excellent health with no medical issues, injuries or signs of neglect despite the ordeal they’ve just been through.
“The animals are incredibly lucky that they were found and we’re extremely grateful to the member of the public who alerted us to them.
"They were understandably very cold, having been exposed to the elements for that period of time, and the finder was kind enough to take them in to their home to warm them up until we could attend.
“Ultimately these Guinea pigs are domesticated animals and would not have survived the elements and predators in the wild for much longer.
“While we appreciate the owner of these Guinea pigs may have intended for them to be found, this is not the correct procedure to follow if you can no longer take care of an animal.
"It is a criminal offence to abandon an animal in a situation likely to cause them harm, under the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006.
“They are now receiving the care they need at one of our animal rescue and rehoming centres.
“If anyone has any information on these animals and how they came to be in this situation, they can contact our confidential animal helpline on 03000 999 999.”