The transfer of the powers will begin today when the necessary regulations are laid at Westminster.
And most of the powers – including disability and carers benefits, top-up payments and the ability to create new benefits – will take effect from September 5.
Economy Secretary Keith Brown said the transfer would improve the lives of people in Scotland.
He said: “New powers on employability are among the most exciting of the new areas to be devolved as it gives Scotland the chance to create services that help longterm unemployed Scots find work and stay in work.
“We want to build a fairer social security system that supports the vulnerable and treats people with dignity and respect. Devolving powers over Discretionary Housing Payments will allow us to have full control over the funding allocation for Scotland, in addition to the funding we are already providing to mitigate fully the negative impact of the bedroom tax. We have already committed to extending winter fuel payments to families with severely disabled children and reform assessments for disability benefits.”