The pre-tournament favourite achieved the 12th 147 in Crucible history in the 19th frame of the match but it was not enough to prevent his shock 13-12 loss to the tournament's 14th seed.
Lisowski described his win as "the best of my career" and added: "I gave that everything I had, and to beat the best player in the world who is playing some of the best snooker we've ever seen, it just feels like a massive achievement.
"I held it together well out there. There's a lot of pressure and I kept my cool really well. I missed a few balls but I made a great clearance to take it into a decider, and I finished it off well in the end."
Lisowski IS rated the best current player not to win a ranking event by many, his victory is still a major upset looked on the cards.
Robertson took some solace from his maximum, insisting: "It just tops the season off because it's on everyone's bucket list to make a 147 at the Crucible and my mum was in the crowd as well."
Defeat for the 40-year-old extended his dismal record at the Crucible, having reached the one-table set up just once since he won his solitary title in 2010.
But he added: "If I only win it once, I've had an unbelievable career, I've achieved everything I could ever dream of 100 times over.
"The season I've had has been the season of absolute dreams. If I'd gone on to win here, it would probably have been the greatest season anyone has had in the sport. But Jack played the match of his life. It was an incredible match and it was played in the right way.”
Judd Trump, Lisowski's close friend who clawed through similar drama to beat Anthony McGill 13-11, was the first to pay tribute, admitting: "I am over the moon for Jack.”
Ronnie O'Sullivan and Mark Williams took command of their respective quarter-finals.
O'Sullivan benefited from an error-strewn display from Stephen Maguire to open up a 6-2 lead following their opening session, with Williams leading Yan Bingtao by the same margin after winning four frames in a row.